Adaptive Horsemanship

Adaptive or therapeutic horsemanship is the provision of horsemanship (riding, driving, vaulting, para-equestrian, horse care) for the health and wellness of individuals with disabilities. Adaptive/therapeutic horsemanship is provided by a trained horsemanship instructor.

*ADAPTIVE/THERAPEUTIC HORSEMANSHIP*
PATH Certified Therapeutic Riding Instructor (CTRI)
PATH Certified Therapeutic Driving Instructor
PATH Certified Interactive Vaulting Instructor

*PARA EQUESTRIAN*
US Driving for the Disabled
US Para Equestrian Association

*RESEARCH*

Cerulli, C., Minganti, C., De Santis, C., Tranchita, E., Quaranta, F., & Parisi, A. (2014). Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(8), 623–629. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2014.0061

Corring, D., Lundberg, E., & Rudnick, A. (2013). Therapeutic Horseback Riding for ACT Patients with Schizophrenia. Community Mental Health Journal, 49(1), 121–126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-011-9457-y

Gabriels, R. L., Pan, Z., Dechant, B., Agnew, J. A., Brim, N., & Mesibov, G. (2015). Randomized Controlled Trial of Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(7), 541–549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2015.04.007

Gabriels, R. L., Pan, Z., Guérin, N. A., Dechant, B., & Mesibov, G. (2018). Long-Term Effect of Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Trial. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5(JUL). https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00156

Goodwin, B. J., Hawkins, B. L., Townsend, J. A., Van Puymbroeck, M., & Lewis, S. (2017). Therapeutic riding and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An application of the theory of self-efficacy. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 15(4), 41. https://doi.org/10.5055/ajrt.2016.0118

Homnick, D. N., Henning, K. M., Swain, C. V., & Homnick, T. D. (2013). Effect of Therapeutic Horseback Riding on Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Balance Deficits. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(7), 622–626. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2012.0642

Johnson, R. A., Albright, D. L., Marzolf, J. R., Bibbo, J. L., Yaglom, H. D., Crowder, S. M., … Harms, N. (2018). Effects of therapeutic horseback riding on post-traumatic stress disorder in military veterans. Military Medical Research, 5(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40779-018-0149-6

Kemeny, B., Hutchins, D., Gramlich, C., Craine, C., & Crandell, L. (2019). Identifying the best protocol: Social engagement or groundwork prior to therapeutic riding? American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 18(1), 19–30. https://doi.org/10.5055/ajrt.2019.0178

Malkin, M. J., Lloyd, L. F., & Gerstenberger, D. (2011). Benefits of therapeutic horseback riding for an adolescent female with traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 10(2), 17–28.

Martin, R. A., Graham, F. P., Levack, W. M. M., Taylor, W. J., & Surgenor, L. J. (2019). Exploring how therapeutic horse riding improves health outcomes using a realist framework. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 030802261986549. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308022619865496

Nqwena, Z., & Naidoo, R. (2016). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on heart rate variability of children with disabilities. African Journal of Disability, 5(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.4102/ajod.v5i1.248

Schneider, M. S., & Harley, L. P. (2016). The Impact of Therapeutic Riding for People with Disabilities on Variables Related to Mental Health. Anthrozoös, 29(1), 59–72. https://doi.org/10.1080/08927936.2015.1069987

Shapley, K. L., Flynn, P. F., & Raven, S. (2018). Therapeutic riding centers : Unexpected benefits. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 17(3), 9–14. https://doi.org/10.5055/ajrt.2018.0163

Wood, W., Alm, K., Benjamin, J., Thomas, L., Anderson, D., Pohl, L., & Kane, M. (2021). Optimal Terminology for Services in the United States That Incorporate Horses to Benefit People: A Consensus Document. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.)27(1), 88–95. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2020.0415