Adaptive Horsemanship

Adaptive or therapeutic horsemanship is the provision of horsemanship (riding, driving, vaulting, para-equestrian, horse care) for the health and wellness of individuals with disabilities. Adaptive/therapeutic horsemanship is provided by a trained horsemanship instructor.

PATH Certified Therapeutic Riding Instructor (CTRI)
PATH Certified Therapeutic Driving Instructor
PATH Certified Interactive Vaulting Instructor

US Driving for the Disabled
US Para Equestrian Association


Cerulli, C., Minganti, C., De Santis, C., Tranchita, E., Quaranta, F., & Parisi, A. (2014). Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(8), 623–629.

Corring, D., Lundberg, E., & Rudnick, A. (2013). Therapeutic Horseback Riding for ACT Patients with Schizophrenia. Community Mental Health Journal, 49(1), 121–126.

Gabriels, R. L., Pan, Z., Dechant, B., Agnew, J. A., Brim, N., & Mesibov, G. (2015). Randomized Controlled Trial of Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(7), 541–549.

Gabriels, R. L., Pan, Z., Guérin, N. A., Dechant, B., & Mesibov, G. (2018). Long-Term Effect of Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Trial. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5(JUL).

Goodwin, B. J., Hawkins, B. L., Townsend, J. A., Van Puymbroeck, M., & Lewis, S. (2017). Therapeutic riding and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An application of the theory of self-efficacy. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 15(4), 41.

Homnick, D. N., Henning, K. M., Swain, C. V., & Homnick, T. D. (2013). Effect of Therapeutic Horseback Riding on Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Balance Deficits. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(7), 622–626.

Johnson, R. A., Albright, D. L., Marzolf, J. R., Bibbo, J. L., Yaglom, H. D., Crowder, S. M., … Harms, N. (2018). Effects of therapeutic horseback riding on post-traumatic stress disorder in military veterans. Military Medical Research, 5(1), 1–13.

Kemeny, B., Hutchins, D., Gramlich, C., Craine, C., & Crandell, L. (2019). Identifying the best protocol: Social engagement or groundwork prior to therapeutic riding? American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 18(1), 19–30.

Malkin, M. J., Lloyd, L. F., & Gerstenberger, D. (2011). Benefits of therapeutic horseback riding for an adolescent female with traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 10(2), 17–28.

Martin, R. A., Graham, F. P., Levack, W. M. M., Taylor, W. J., & Surgenor, L. J. (2019). Exploring how therapeutic horse riding improves health outcomes using a realist framework. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 030802261986549.

Nqwena, Z., & Naidoo, R. (2016). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on heart rate variability of children with disabilities. African Journal of Disability, 5(1), 1–8.

Schneider, M. S., & Harley, L. P. (2016). The Impact of Therapeutic Riding for People with Disabilities on Variables Related to Mental Health. Anthrozoös, 29(1), 59–72.

Shapley, K. L., Flynn, P. F., & Raven, S. (2018). Therapeutic riding centers : Unexpected benefits. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 17(3), 9–14.

Wood, W., Alm, K., Benjamin, J., Thomas, L., Anderson, D., Pohl, L., & Kane, M. (2021). Optimal Terminology for Services in the United States That Incorporate Horses to Benefit People: A Consensus Document. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.)27(1), 88–95.