Breath Training

Interested in WHY these techniques work? Check out Dr. Stephen Porges and Polyvagal theory.

Intrinsic Way-Emily Hightower
Oxygen Advantage
Health and Human Performance Foundation
The Breathing Diabetic



Bernardi, L., Gordin, D., Bordino, M., Rosengård-Bärlund, M., Sandelin, A., Forsblom, C., Groop, P., (2017) Oxygen-induced impairment in arterial function is corrected by slow breathing in patients with type 1 diabetes, Nature Scientific Reports, DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-04947-4

Bernardi, L. and L. Bianchi (2016), Integrated cardio-respiratory control: Insight in diabetes, Current Diabetes Reports, 16: 107, DOI 10.1007/s11892-016-0804-9

Bianchi L., Porta C., Rinaldi A., Gazzaruso C., Fratino P., DeCata P., Protti P., Paltro R., and L. Bernardi (2017), Integrated cardiovascular/respiratory control in type 1 diabetes evidences functional imbalance: Possible role of hypoxia, International Journal of Cardiology, 244, 254 – 259, DOI:

Brandani, J. Z., Mizuno, J., Ciolac, E. G., & Monteiro, H. L. (2017). The hypotensive effect of Yoga’s breathing exercises: A systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 28, 38–46.

Chaddha A, Modaff D, Hooper-Lane C, Feldstein DA.  Device and non-device-guided slow breathing to reduce blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  Complement Ther Med. 2019;45:179-184. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2019.03.005

Chen YF, Huang XY, Chien CH, Cheng JF. The effectiveness of diaphragmatic breathing relaxation training for reducing anxiety. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2017;53(4):329-336

Gerritsen, R. J. S., & Band, G. P. H. (2018). Breath of Life: The Respiratory Vagal Stimulation Model of Contemplative Activity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12(February), 1–25.

Hobbins, l., Hunter, S., Gaoua, N., Girard, O. (2017) Normobaric hypoxic conditioning to maximize weight loss and ameliorate cardio-metabolic health in obese populations: a systematic review, American Journal of Physiology Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00160.2017

Hopper, S. I., Murray, S. L., Ferrara, L. R., & Singleton, J. K. (2018). Effectiveness of diaphragmatic breathing on physiological and psychological stress in adults. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 16(6), 1367–1372.

Howorka, K., Pumprla, J., Tamm, J., Schabmann, A., Klomfar, S., Kostineak, E., Howorka, N., Sovova, E. (2013) Effects of guided breathing on blood pressure and heart rate variability in hypertensive diabetic patients, Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical, 179, 131–137,

Kromenacker, B. W., Sanova, A. A., Marcus, F. I., Allen, J. J. B., & Lane, R. D. (2018). Vagal Mediation of Low Frequency Heart Rate Variability During Slow Yogic Breathing. Psychosomatic Medicine, 80(6), 1.

Mackenzie, R., Maxwell, N., Castle, P., Elliott, B., Brickley, G., Watt, P. (2012) Intermittent exercise with and without hypoxia improves insulin sensitivity in individuals with type 2 diabetes, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 97(4), E546–E555

Muzik, O., Reilly, K. T., & Diwadkar, V. A. (2018). “Brain over body”–A study on the willful regulation of autonomic function during cold exposure. NeuroImage, 172(February), 632–641.

Perciavalle, V., Blandini, M., Fecarotta, P., Buscemi, A., Di Corrado, D., Bertolo, L., … Coco, M. (2017). The role of deep breathing on stress. Neurological Sciences, 38(3), 451–458.

Rauschel, V., Straube, A., Süß, F., & Ruscheweyh, R. (2015). Responsiveness of the autonomic nervous system during paced breathing and mental stress in migraine patients. The Journal of Headache and Pain, 16(1), 82.

Schmalzl, L., Powers, C., Zanesco, A. P., Yetz, N., Groessl, E. J., & Saron, C. D. (2018). The effect of movement-focused and breath-focused yoga practice on stress parameters and sustained attention: A randomized controlled pilot study. Consciousness and Cognition, 65(October 2017), 109–125.

Wilson, T., Kelly, K.L., Baker, S.E. (2017) Review: Can yoga breathing exercises improve glycemic response and insulin sensitivity?, Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy, 7 (2), DOI: 10.4172/2157-7595.1000270.

Wilson, T., Baker, S.E., Freeman, M.R., Garbrecht, M.R., Ragsdale, F.R., Wilson, D.A., Malone, C. (2013) Relaxation Breathing Improves Human Glycemic Response, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19 (7), 633-636, DOI: 10.1089/acm.2012.0603

Williamson, J. B., Porges, E. C., Lamb, D. G., & Porges, S. W. (2015). Maladaptive autonomic regulation in PTSD accelerates physiological aging. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(OCT), 1–12.

Zelano C, Jiang H, Zhou G, Arora N, Schuele S, Rosenow J, Gottfried JA.  Nasal Respiration Entrains Human Limbic Oscillations and Modulates Cognitive FunctionJ Neurosci. 2016;36(49):12448-12467

Polyvagal Theory

Breit, S., Kupferberg, A., Rogler, G., & Hasler, G. (2018). Vagus Nerve as Modulator of the Brain–Gut Axis in Psychiatric and Inflammatory Disorders. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9(MAR).

Colzato, L. S., Jongkees, B. J., de Wit, M., van der Molen, M. J. W., & Steenbergen, L. (2018). Variable heart rate and a flexible mind: Higher resting-state heart rate variability predicts better task-switching. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 18(4), 730–738.

Dale, L. P., Shaikh, S. K., Fasciano, L. C., Watorek, V. D., Heilman, K. J., & Porges, S. W. (2018). College females with maltreatment histories have atypical autonomic regulation and poor psychological wellbeing. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 10(4), 427–434.

Gruber, J., Mennin, D. S., Fields, A., Purcell, A., & Murray, G. (2015). Heart rate variability as a potential indicator of positive valence system disturbance: A proof of concept investigation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98(2), 240–248.

Kolacz, J., Kovacic, K. K., & Porges, S. W. (2019). Traumatic stress and the autonomic brain‐gut connection in development: Polyvagal Theory as an integrative framework for psychosocial and gastrointestinal pathology. Developmental Psychobiology, 61(5), dev.21852.

Kolacz, J., & Porges, S. W. (2018). Corrigendum: Chronic Diffuse Pain and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders After Traumatic Stress: Pathophysiology Through a Polyvagal Perspective. Frontiers in Medicine, 5(May), 1–11.

Laborde, S., Mosley, E., & Mertgen, A. (2018). Vagal Tank Theory: The Three Rs of Cardiac Vagal Control Functioning – Resting, Reactivity, and Recovery. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 12(JUL), 1–14.

Sullivan, M. B., Erb, M., Schmalzl, L., Moonaz, S., Noggle Taylor, J., & Porges, S. W. (2018). Yoga Therapy and Polyvagal Theory: The Convergence of Traditional Wisdom and Contemporary Neuroscience for Self-Regulation and Resilience. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12(February), 1–15.

Zaccaro A, Piarulli A, Laurino M, et al. (2018) How Breath-Control Can Change Your Life: A Systematic Review on Psycho Physiological Correlates of Slow Breathing.  Frontiers in Human Neuroscience