Breath & Yoga

Interested in WHY these techniques work? Check out Dr. Stephen Porges and Polyvagal theory.

CAMO Program
Health and Human Performance Foundation
Intrinsic Way-Emily Hightower
Oxygen Advantage
The Breathing Diabetic

Heartmath Biofeedback Trainings
MBSR Teacher Training from Brown University

iRest Yoga Nidra Meditation
Warriors At Ease
International Association of Yoga Therapists
Yoga Alliance– Find a registered yoga school
Yoga International


Adams, MS, CTRS, C-IAYT, E. V., & Townsend, PhD, CTRS, J. (2018). A systematic review of yoga and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Implications for recreational therapy practitioners. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 17(2), 37.

Anheyer, D., Klose, P., Lauche, R., Saha, F. J., & Cramer, H. (2019). Yoga for Treating Headaches: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Journal of General Internal Medicine.

Avery, T., Blasey, C., Rosen, C., & Bayley, P. (2018). Psychological Flexibility and Set-Shifting Among Veterans Participating in a Yoga Program: A Pilot Study. Military Medicine, 183(11–12), e359–e363.

Bolster, MS, OTR, R. A., Van Puymbroeck, PhD, CTRS, FDRT, M., Atler, PhD, OTR, K. E., Portz, PhD, MSW, J. D., Hinsey, MS, OTR, K. M., & Schmid, PhD, OTR, RYT-200, A. A. (2018). Yoga and self-management for people with chronic stroke: Effect on community reintegration and perceived activity constraints. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 17(2), 20.

Brandani, J. Z., Mizuno, J., Ciolac, E. G., & Monteiro, H. L. (2017). The hypotensive effect of Yoga’s breathing exercises: A systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 28, 38–46.

Breit, S., Kupferberg, A., Rogler, G., & Hasler, G. (2018). Vagus Nerve as Modulator of the Brain–Gut Axis in Psychiatric and Inflammatory Disorders. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9(MAR).

Buijze, G. A., Sierevelt, I. N., Van Der Heijden, B. C. J. M., Dijkgraaf, M. G., & Frings-Dresen, M. H. W. (2016). The effect of cold showering on health and work: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE, 11(9), 1–16.

Chimiklis, A. L., Dahl, V., Spears, A. P., Goss, K., Fogarty, K., & Chacko, A. (2018). Yoga, Mindfulness, and Meditation Interventions for Youth with ADHD: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(10), 3155–3168.

Colzato, L. S., Jongkees, B. J., de Wit, M., van der Molen, M. J. W., & Steenbergen, L. (2018). Variable heart rate and a flexible mind: Higher resting-state heart rate variability predicts better task-switching. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 18(4), 730–738.

Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Anheyer, D., Pilkington, K., de Manincor, M., Dobos, G., & Ward, L. (2018). Yoga for anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Depression and Anxiety, 35(9), 830–843.

Cramer, H., Peng, W., & Lauche, R. (2018). Yoga for menopausal symptoms—A systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas, 109(November 2017), 13–25.

Cramer, H., Anheyer, D., Saha, F. J., & Dobos, G. (2018). Yoga for posttraumatic stress disorder – a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 72.

Dale, L. P., Shaikh, S. K., Fasciano, L. C., Watorek, V. D., Heilman, K. J., & Porges, S. W. (2018). College females with maltreatment histories have atypical autonomic regulation and poor psychological wellbeing. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 10(4), 427–434.

Cramer, H., & Lauche, R. (2018). Yoga therapy: Efficacy, mechanisms and implementation. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 40(November 2017), 236.

Cramer, H., Anheyer, D., Lauche, R., & Dobos, G. (2017, April 15). A systematic review of yoga for major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 213, pp. 70–77.

Cushing, R. E., Braun, K. L., Alden, C-IAYT, S. W., & Katz, A. R. (2018). Military-Tailored Yoga for Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder†. Military Medicine, 183(5–6), e223–e231.

Cushing, R. E., Braun, K. L., & Alden, S. (2018). A Qualitative Study Exploring Yoga in Veterans with PTSD Symptoms. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 28(1), 63–70.

Dunne, E. M., Balletto, B. L., Donahue, M. L., Feulner, M. M., DeCosta, J., Cruess, D. G., … Scott-Sheldon, L. A. J. (2019). The benefits of yoga for people living with HIV/AIDS: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 34(November 2018), 157–164.

Ewais, T., Begun, J., Kenny, M., Rickett, K., Hay, K., Ajilchi, B., & Kisely, S. (2019). A systematic review and meta-analysis of mindfulness based interventions and yoga in inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 116(November 2018), 44–53.

Falkenberg, R. I., Eising, C., & Peters, M. L. (2018). Yoga and immune system functioning: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 41(4), 467–482.

Gallegos, A. M., Crean, H. F., Pigeon, W. R., & Heffner, K. L. (2017). Meditation and yoga for posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 58, 115–124.

Gerritsen, R. J. S., & Band, G. P. H. (2018). Breath of Life: The Respiratory Vagal Stimulation Model of Contemplative Activity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12(February), 1–25.

Gong, H., Ni, C., Shen, X., Wu, T., & Jiang, C. (2015). Yoga for prenatal depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 15(1), 14.

Green, E., Huynh, A., Broussard, L., Zunker, B., Matthews, J., Hilton, C. L., & Aranha, K. (2019). Systematic Review of Yoga and Balance: Effect on Adults With Neuromuscular Impairment. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 73(1), 7301205150p1.

Gruber, J., Mennin, D. S., Fields, A., Purcell, A., & Murray, G. (2015). Heart rate variability as a potential indicator of positive valence system disturbance: A proof of concept investigation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98(2), 240–248.

Harris, A., Austin, M., Blake, T. M., & Bird, M. L. (2019). Perceived benefits and barriers to yoga participation after stroke: A focus group approach. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 34(November 2018), 153–156.

Hopper, S. I., Murray, S. L., Ferrara, L. R., & Singleton, J. K. (2018). Effectiveness of diaphragmatic breathing on physiological and psychological stress in adults. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 16(6), 1367–1372.

Hurst, S., Maiya, M., Casteel, D., Sarkin, A. J., Libretto, S., Elwy, A. R., … Groessl, E. J. (2018). Yoga therapy for military personnel and veterans: Qualitative perspectives of yoga students and instructors. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 40(August 2017), 222–229.

Jindani, F. A., & Khalsa, G. F. S. (2015). A Yoga Intervention Program for Patients Suffering from Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Qualitative Descriptive Study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(7), 401–408.

Jindani, F., Turner, N., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015). A Yoga Intervention for Posttraumatic Stress: A Preliminary Randomized Control Trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2015, 1–8.

Justice, L., Brems, C., & Ehlers, K. (2018). Bridging Body and Mind: Considerations for Trauma-Informed Yoga. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 28(1), 39–50.

Kiefer, D. (2015). Ten Weeks of Yoga Improves Symptomatology in Women with PTSD. Integrative Medicine Alert, 18(11), 1–3. Retrieved from

Kim, S.-D. (2017). Psychological effects of yoga nidra in women with menstrual disorders: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 28, 4–8.

Kolacz, J., Kovacic, K. K., & Porges, S. W. (2019). Traumatic stress and the autonomic brain‐gut connection in development: Polyvagal Theory as an integrative framework for psychosocial and gastrointestinal pathology. Developmental Psychobiology, 61(5), dev.21852.

Kolacz, J., & Porges, S. W. (2018). Corrigendum: Chronic Diffuse Pain and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders After Traumatic Stress: Pathophysiology Through a Polyvagal Perspective. Frontiers in Medicine, 5(May), 1–11.

Kromenacker, B. W., Sanova, A. A., Marcus, F. I., Allen, J. J. B., & Lane, R. D. (2018). Vagal Mediation of Low Frequency Heart Rate Variability During Slow Yogic Breathing. Psychosomatic Medicine, 80(6), 1.

Laborde, S., Mosley, E., & Mertgen, A. (2018). Vagal Tank Theory: The Three Rs of Cardiac Vagal Control Functioning – Resting, Reactivity, and Recovery. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 12(JUL), 1–14.

Lauche, R., Hunter, D. J., Adams, J., & Cramer, H. (2019). Yoga for Osteoarthritis: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Current Rheumatology Reports, 21(9), 47.

Lawrence, M., Celestino Junior, F. T., Matozinho, H. H. S., Govan, L., Booth, J., & Beecher, J. (2017). Yoga for stroke rehabilitation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2017(12).

Li, C., Liu, Y., Ji, Y., Xie, L., & Hou, Z. (2018). Efficacy of yoga training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 30, 33–37.

Li, Y., Li, S., Jiang, J., & Yuan, S. (2019). Effects of yoga on patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain. Medicine, 98(8), e14649.

Mehling, W. E., Chesney, M. A., Metzler, T. J., Goldstein, L. A., Maguen, S., Geronimo, C., … Neylan, T. C. (2018). A 12-week integrative exercise program improves self-reported mindfulness and interoceptive awareness in war veterans with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 74(4), 554–565.

Muzik, O., Reilly, K. T., & Diwadkar, V. A. (2018). “Brain over body”–A study on the willful regulation of autonomic function during cold exposure. NeuroImage, 172(February), 632–641.

Nguyen-Feng, V. N., Clark, C. J., & Butler, M. E. (2019). Yoga as an intervention for psychological symptoms following trauma: A systematic review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological Services, 16(3), 513–523.

Nolan, C. R. (2016). Bending without breaking: A narrative review of trauma-sensitive yoga for women with PTSD. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 24, 32–40.

Perciavalle, V., Blandini, M., Fecarotta, P., Buscemi, A., Di Corrado, D., Bertolo, L., … Coco, M. (2017). The role of deep breathing on stress. Neurological Sciences, 38(3), 451–458.

Ostermann, T., Vogel, H., Boehm, K., & Cramer, H. (2019, October 1). Effects of yoga on eating disorders—A systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Vol. 46, pp. 73–80.

Rauschel, V., Straube, A., Süß, F., & Ruscheweyh, R. (2015). Responsiveness of the autonomic nervous system during paced breathing and mental stress in migraine patients. The Journal of Headache and Pain, 16(1), 82.

Rhodes, A., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B. (2016). Yoga for Adult Women with Chronic PTSD: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 22(3), 189–196.

Schmalzl, L., Powers, C., Zanesco, A. P., Yetz, N., Groessl, E. J., & Saron, C. D. (2018). The effect of movement-focused and breath-focused yoga practice on stress parameters and sustained attention: A randomized controlled pilot study. Consciousness and Cognition, 65(October 2017), 109–125.

Sullivan, M. B., Erb, M., Schmalzl, L., Moonaz, S., Noggle Taylor, J., & Porges, S. W. (2018). Yoga Therapy and Polyvagal Theory: The Convergence of Traditional Wisdom and Contemporary Neuroscience for Self-Regulation and Resilience. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12(February), 1–15.

Van Puymbroeck, PhD, CTRS, FDRT, M., Allsop, MS, CTRS, J., Miller, PhD, PT, K. K., & Schmid, PhD, OTR, A. A. (2017). ICF-based improvements in body structures and function, and activity and participation in chronic stroke following a yoga-based intervention. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 13(3), 23.

Walker, J., & Pacik, D. (2017). Controlled Rhythmic Yogic Breathing as Complementary Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Military Veterans: A Case Series. Medical Acupuncture, 29(4), 232–238.

Wash, K. (2017). Brace yourselves, winter is coming: a pilot study of the effects of brief, infrequent cold water immersion upon body composition in young adult males. Journal of Evolution and Health, 2(2).

West, J., Liang, B., & Spinazzola, J. (2017). Trauma sensitive yoga as a complementary treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: A qualitative descriptive analysis. International Journal of Stress Management, 24(2), 173–195.

Williamson, J. B., Porges, E. C., Lamb, D. G., & Porges, S. W. (2015). Maladaptive autonomic regulation in PTSD accelerates physiological aging. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(OCT), 1–12.