Babson, K. A., Heinz, A. J., Ramirez, G., Puckett, M., Irons, J. G., Bonn-Miller, M. O., & Woodward, S. H. (2015). The interactive role of exercise and sleep on veteran recovery from symptoms of PTSD. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 8, 15–20.

Mehling, W. E., Chesney, M. A., Metzler, T. J., Goldstein, L. A., Maguen, S., Geronimo, C., … Neylan, T. C. (2018). A 12-week integrative exercise program improves self-reported mindfulness and interoceptive awareness in war veterans with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 74(4), 554–565.

Nindl, B. C., Eagle, S. R., Frykman, P. N., Palmer, C., Lammi, E., Reynolds, K., … Harman, E. (2017). Functional physical training improves women’s military occupational performance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20, S91–S97.


Johnson, R. A., Albright, D. L., Marzolf, J. R., Bibbo, J. L., Yaglom, H. D., Crowder, S. M., … Harms, N. (2018). Effects of therapeutic horseback riding on post-traumatic stress disorder in military veterans. Military Medical Research, 5(1), 1–13.

Lanning, B. A., Wilson, A. L., Krenek, N., & Beaujean, A. A. (2017). Using Therapeutic Riding as an Intervention for Combat Veterans: An International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Approach. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 33(3), 259–278.

Expressive Arts

Canada, K. E., Brinkley, A., Peters, C., & Albright, D. L. (2015). Military veterans: Therapeutic journaling in a veterans treatment court. Journal of Poetry Therapy, 28(2), 113–128.

Glavin, C. E. Y., & Montgomery, P. (2017). Creative bibliotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a systematic review. Journal of Poetry Therapy, 30(2), 95–107.

Litchke, L., & Finley, C. (2019). Social-Emotional Benefits of Drumtastic Ability Beats® Dyadic Partnership between a College Veteran with PTSD and an Elementary Student in a Special Education Setting. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 53(2), 175–184.

Fly Fishing

Bennett, J., Van Puymbroeck, M., Piatt, J., Rydell, R. (2014). Veterans’ perceptions of benefits and important program components of a therapeutic fly-fishing program. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, XLVIII(2), 169–187.

Bennett, J. L., Piatt, J. A., & Van Puymbroeck, M. (2017). Outcomes of a Therapeutic Fly-Fishing Program for Veterans with Combat-Related Disabilities: A Community-Based Rehabilitation Initiative. Community Mental Health Journal, 53(7), 756–765.

Vella, E. J., Milligan, B., & Bennett, J. L. (2013). Participation in Outdoor Recreation Program Predicts Improved Psychosocial Well-Being Among Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Pilot Study. Military Medicine, 178(3), 254–260.


Dustin, D., Bricker, N., Arave, J., Dustin, D. L., Arave, J., Wall, W., & Wendt, G. (2011). The Promise of River Running as a Therapeutic Medium for Veterans Coping with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. In Therapeutic Recreation Journal.

Hartman, K., & Porter, H. (2017). White water kayaking, positive affect, and perceived self-awareness: A case study of a veteran of the Vietnam era. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 13(4), 41.

Scherer, M. R., Gade, D. M., & Yancosek, K. E. (2014). Efficacy of an adaptive kayaking intervention for improving health-related quality of life among wounded, ill, and injured service members. American Journal of RecreationTherapy, 12(3), 8–16.

Martial Arts

Lukoff, D., & Strozzi-Heckler, R. (2017). Aikido: A martial art with mindfulness, somatic, relational, and spiritual benefits for veterans. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 4(2), 81–91.

Niles, B. L., Mori, D. L., Polizzi, C. P., Pless Kaiser, A., Ledoux, A. M., & Wang, C. (2016). Feasibility, qualitative findings and satisfaction of a brief Tai Chi mind–body programme for veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms. BMJ Open, 6(11), e012464.

Weiss, T. C., Dickstein, B. D., Hansel, J. E., Schumm, J. A., & Chard, K. M. (2017). Aikido as an Augment to Residential Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment. Military Psychology, 29(6), 615–622.

Outdoor Recreation

Duvall, J., & Kaplan, R. (2014). Enhancing the well-being of veterans using extended group-based nature recreation experiences. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 51(5), 685–696.

Hawkins, B. L., Townsend, J. A., & Garst, B. A. (2016). Nature-Based Recreational Therapy for Military Service Members: A Strengths Approach. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 50(1), 55–74.

Lundberg, N., Taniguchi, S., McGovern, R., & Smith, S. (2016). Female veterans’ involvement in outdoor sports and recreation: A theoretical sample of recreation opportunity structures. Journal of Leisure Research, 48(5), 413–430.

Poulsen, D. V., Stigsdotter, U. K., Djernis, D., & Sidenius, U. (2016). ‘Everything just seems much more right in nature’: How veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder experience nature-based activities in a forest therapy garden. Health Psychology Open, 3(1), 205510291663709.

Rogers, S. D., Loy, D., & Brown-Bochicchio, C. (2016). Sharing a New Foxhole With Friends: The Impact of Outdoor Recreation on Injured Military. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 50(3), 213–227.

Van Puymbroeck, M., Ewert, A. W., Luo, Y., & Frankel, J. (2012). The influence of the Outward Bound Veterans Program on sense of coherence. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 11(3), 31–38.


Blumhorst, E., Kono, S., Cave, J. (2020). An exploratory study of adaptive scuba diving’s effects on psychological well-being among military veterans. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 54(2), 173-188.


Avery, T., Blasey, C., Rosen, C., & Bayley, P. (2018). Psychological Flexibility and Set-Shifting Among Veterans Participating in a Yoga Program: A Pilot Study. Military Medicine, 183(11–12), e359–e363.

Cramer, H., Anheyer, D., Saha, F. J., & Dobos, G. (2018). Yoga for posttraumatic stress disorder – a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 72.

Cushing, R. E., Braun, K. L., Alden, C-IAYT, S. W., & Katz, A. R. (2018). Military-Tailored Yoga for Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder†. Military Medicine, 183(5–6), e223–e231.

Cushing, R. E., Braun, K. L., & Alden, S. (2018). A Qualitative Study Exploring Yoga in Veterans with PTSD Symptoms. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 28(1), 63–70.

Gallegos, A. M., Crean, H. F., Pigeon, W. R., & Heffner, K. L. (2017). Meditation and yoga for posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 58, 115–124.

Hurst, S., Maiya, M., Casteel, D., Sarkin, A. J., Libretto, S., Elwy, A. R., … Groessl, E. J. (2018). Yoga therapy for military personnel and veterans: Qualitative perspectives of yoga students and instructors. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 40(August 2017), 222–229.

Walker, J., & Pacik, D. (2017). Controlled Rhythmic Yogic Breathing as Complementary Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Military Veterans: A Case Series. Medical Acupuncture, 29(4), 232–238.