Research

Fitness

Babson, K. A., Heinz, A. J., Ramirez, G., Puckett, M., Irons, J. G., Bonn-Miller, M. O., & Woodward, S. H. (2015). The interactive role of exercise and sleep on veteran recovery from symptoms of PTSD. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 8, 15–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2014.12.002

Mehling, W. E., Chesney, M. A., Metzler, T. J., Goldstein, L. A., Maguen, S., Geronimo, C., … Neylan, T. C. (2018). A 12-week integrative exercise program improves self-reported mindfulness and interoceptive awareness in war veterans with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 74(4), 554–565. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22549

Nindl, B. C., Eagle, S. R., Frykman, P. N., Palmer, C., Lammi, E., Reynolds, K., … Harman, E. (2017). Functional physical training improves women’s military occupational performance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20, S91–S97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.07.012

Equestrian

Johnson, R. A., Albright, D. L., Marzolf, J. R., Bibbo, J. L., Yaglom, H. D., Crowder, S. M., … Harms, N. (2018). Effects of therapeutic horseback riding on post-traumatic stress disorder in military veterans. Military Medical Research, 5(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40779-018-0149-6

Lanning, B. A., Wilson, A. L., Krenek, N., & Beaujean, A. A. (2017). Using Therapeutic Riding as an Intervention for Combat Veterans: An International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Approach. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 33(3), 259–278. https://doi.org/10.1080/0164212X.2017.1283282

Expressive Arts

Canada, K. E., Brinkley, A., Peters, C., & Albright, D. L. (2015). Military veterans: Therapeutic journaling in a veterans treatment court. Journal of Poetry Therapy, 28(2), 113–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/08893675.2015.1011373

Glavin, C. E. Y., & Montgomery, P. (2017). Creative bibliotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a systematic review. Journal of Poetry Therapy, 30(2), 95–107. https://doi.org/10.1080/08893675.2017.1266190

Litchke, L., & Finley, C. (2019). Social-Emotional Benefits of Drumtastic Ability Beats® Dyadic Partnership between a College Veteran with PTSD and an Elementary Student in a Special Education Setting. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 53(2), 175–184. https://doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2019-V53-I2-9129

Fly Fishing

Bennett, J., Van Puymbroeck, M., Piatt, J., Rydell, R. (2014). Veterans’ perceptions of benefits and important program components of a therapeutic fly-fishing program. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, XLVIII(2), 169–187.

Bennett, J. L., Piatt, J. A., & Van Puymbroeck, M. (2017). Outcomes of a Therapeutic Fly-Fishing Program for Veterans with Combat-Related Disabilities: A Community-Based Rehabilitation Initiative. Community Mental Health Journal, 53(7), 756–765. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-017-0124-9

Vella, E. J., Milligan, B., & Bennett, J. L. (2013). Participation in Outdoor Recreation Program Predicts Improved Psychosocial Well-Being Among Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Pilot Study. Military Medicine, 178(3), 254–260. https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00308

Kayaking

Dustin, D., Bricker, N., Arave, J., Dustin, D. L., Arave, J., Wall, W., & Wendt, G. (2011). The Promise of River Running as a Therapeutic Medium for Veterans Coping with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. In Therapeutic Recreation Journal.

Hartman, K., & Porter, H. (2017). White water kayaking, positive affect, and perceived self-awareness: A case study of a veteran of the Vietnam era. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 13(4), 41. https://doi.org/10.5055/ajrt.2014.0084

Scherer, M. R., Gade, D. M., & Yancosek, K. E. (2014). Efficacy of an adaptive kayaking intervention for improving health-related quality of life among wounded, ill, and injured service members. American Journal of RecreationTherapy, 12(3), 8–16. https://doi.org/10.5055/ajrt.2013.0048

Martial Arts

Lukoff, D., & Strozzi-Heckler, R. (2017). Aikido: A martial art with mindfulness, somatic, relational, and spiritual benefits for veterans. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 4(2), 81–91. https://doi.org/10.1037/scp0000134

Niles, B. L., Mori, D. L., Polizzi, C. P., Pless Kaiser, A., Ledoux, A. M., & Wang, C. (2016). Feasibility, qualitative findings and satisfaction of a brief Tai Chi mind–body programme for veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms. BMJ Open, 6(11), e012464. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012464

Weiss, T. C., Dickstein, B. D., Hansel, J. E., Schumm, J. A., & Chard, K. M. (2017). Aikido as an Augment to Residential Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment. Military Psychology, 29(6), 615–622. https://doi.org/10.1037/mil0000194

Outdoor Recreation

Duvall, J., & Kaplan, R. (2014). Enhancing the well-being of veterans using extended group-based nature recreation experiences. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 51(5), 685–696. https://doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2013.08.0190

Hawkins, B. L., Townsend, J. A., & Garst, B. A. (2016). Nature-Based Recreational Therapy for Military Service Members: A Strengths Approach. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 50(1), 55–74. https://doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2016-V50-I1-6793

Lundberg, N., Taniguchi, S., McGovern, R., & Smith, S. (2016). Female veterans’ involvement in outdoor sports and recreation: A theoretical sample of recreation opportunity structures. Journal of Leisure Research, 48(5), 413–430. https://doi.org/10.18666/JLR-2016-V48-I5-6897

Poulsen, D. V., Stigsdotter, U. K., Djernis, D., & Sidenius, U. (2016). ‘Everything just seems much more right in nature’: How veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder experience nature-based activities in a forest therapy garden. Health Psychology Open, 3(1), 205510291663709. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055102916637090

Rogers, S. D., Loy, D., & Brown-Bochicchio, C. (2016). Sharing a New Foxhole With Friends: The Impact of Outdoor Recreation on Injured Military. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 50(3), 213–227. https://doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2016-V50-I3-2837

Van Puymbroeck, M., Ewert, A. W., Luo, Y., & Frankel, J. (2012). The influence of the Outward Bound Veterans Program on sense of coherence. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 11(3), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.5055/ajrt.2012.0025

Scuba

Blumhorst, E., Kono, S., Cave, J. (2020). An exploratory study of adaptive scuba diving’s effects on psychological well-being among military veterans. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 54(2), 173-188.

Yoga

Avery, T., Blasey, C., Rosen, C., & Bayley, P. (2018). Psychological Flexibility and Set-Shifting Among Veterans Participating in a Yoga Program: A Pilot Study. Military Medicine, 183(11–12), e359–e363. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy045

Cramer, H., Anheyer, D., Saha, F. J., & Dobos, G. (2018). Yoga for posttraumatic stress disorder – a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 72. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1650-x

Cushing, R. E., Braun, K. L., Alden, C-IAYT, S. W., & Katz, A. R. (2018). Military-Tailored Yoga for Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder†. Military Medicine, 183(5–6), e223–e231. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usx071

Cushing, R. E., Braun, K. L., & Alden, S. (2018). A Qualitative Study Exploring Yoga in Veterans with PTSD Symptoms. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 28(1), 63–70. https://doi.org/10.17761/2018-00020

Gallegos, A. M., Crean, H. F., Pigeon, W. R., & Heffner, K. L. (2017). Meditation and yoga for posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 58, 115–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2017.10.004

Hurst, S., Maiya, M., Casteel, D., Sarkin, A. J., Libretto, S., Elwy, A. R., … Groessl, E. J. (2018). Yoga therapy for military personnel and veterans: Qualitative perspectives of yoga students and instructors. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 40(August 2017), 222–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2017.10.008

Walker, J., & Pacik, D. (2017). Controlled Rhythmic Yogic Breathing as Complementary Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Military Veterans: A Case Series. Medical Acupuncture, 29(4), 232–238. https://doi.org/10.1089/acu.2017.1215